What turbulence model should I use to model gas-solid fluidized bed in FLUENT?

For modeling gas-solid fluidized beds, we recommend that you do not use any turbulence model. Please run your cases laminar.

In any gas-solid fluidized bed, including bubbling beds, turbulent beds, risers etc, the main force balance is between the drag of the gas on the particles and the buoyant weight of the particles, unlike the case of single phase flow where the wall friction is the major factor influencing pressure drop.
Agrawal et al. (2001) and, Srivatsava and Sundaresan (2003) argue that in the case of dense gas-solid flows, where the inertia of the solids is much higher than the gas, the deviatoric part of the gas-phase stress plays a negligible role, and hence the role of the gas-phase viscosity, both laminar and turbulent, is negligible.

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